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Neuro-ophthalmology is the part of ophthalmology that is responsible for diseases that affect the optic pathway, that is, everything that is related to the transmission of the light signal from the retina to the brain, until its processing in the cortex. brain and until we understand what we are seeing.

There is a very wide spectrum of diseases and very diverse depending on the level at which each of them is affecting, and therefore, the spectrum of patients who can consult is also very diverse.

In neuro-ophthalmology, we can have young patients with Multiple Sclerosis, which is a systemic, generalized disease, which just as it can produce an outbreak of inflammation in the Central Nervous System, it can also cause inflammation in the optic nerve and that translates in a loss of vision, with which they can initially consult an ophthalmologist.

Even older patients with other various diseases such as some tumors with slow growth, which can affect both the optic pathway, the optic nerve, as well as the areas of the brain that are responsible for vision.

Diseases related to Neuro-ophthalmology

The most frequent are:
{Alteraciones Pupilares}

Pupillary Alterations

Of different origin, in size, in shape and they can also be noticed suddenly or sometimes go unnoticed by the patient.

{Dolor ocular con perdida de visión}

Eye pain with loss of vision

There are many causes that are diagnosed by the Neuro-ophthalmologist and that produce this problem.

{Alteraciones en los movimiento del Ojo}

Alterations in eye movements

They can be congenital or acquired, paralysis in eye movement.

{Perdida visual inexplicada}

Unexplained visual loss

There is no obvious cause as to why the patient complains of poor vision.

{Defectos del Campo Visual}

Visual Field Defects

There are visual field losses, not related to glaucoma and that are confused with this other disease.

{Diplopia o Visión Doble}

Diplopia or Double Vision

This condition may have a sudden onset or a progressive onset.

Diseases related to Neuroophthalmology

There are many diseases of the cornea, both hereditary and acquired. Due to their importance we can highlight the following:

Optic neuritis occurs when swelling damages the optic nerve, a collection of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. Common symptoms of optic neuritis include pain with eye movement and temporary loss of vision in one eye.

Signs and symptoms of optic neuritis may be the first indication of multiple sclerosis, or they may appear later. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes inflammation and damage to the nerves in the brain and optic nerve.


Diplopia, also called double vision, is a vision disease in which the images perceived by the eyes are not processed in the brain as a single spatial image, but double vision is generated. Depending on its origin, it can be of two types:

Binocular: is the most common type. It occurs when the eyes do not align with each other correctly.

Monocular: It is much less common than the previous one. It is characterized by double vision generated by only one eye. It is related to an abnormality of the eye.

Depending on its result, diplopia can be of three types:

Horizontal- Images appear side by side.

Vertical- Images appear on top of each other.

Diagonal- Images appear both horizontally and vertically.


Papilla or optic nerve edema is an inflammation or “swelling” that occurs in that nerve. The optic nerve goes from the eye or eyeball to the brain, to transmit visual information to the place where it is processed. Papilla edema could involve damage to the optic nerve, although this is not always the case.


Ischemic optic neuropathy occurs when blood does not flow properly to the optic nerve of the eye, causing lasting damage to the nerve, suddenly losing vision in one or both eyes.

The optic nerve carries signals from the eyes to the brain. The brain then converts these signals into the images you see. When blood flow to the optic nerve is reduced or blocked, it does not get enough oxygen or nutrition. Then it stops working properly and eventually dies.

This condition can affect central vision, lateral (peripheral) vision, or both. Because the damaged optic nerve cannot be repaired, any vision loss that occurs is usually permanent. Typically, people with this severe condition retain some peripheral vision.