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Refractive Defects


Refractive errors are those in which the image, which reaches the retina through the cornea and the lens, converges at a point outside it. In a normal eye (emmetropic), the images that reach the retina sent by the cornea and the lens are focused directly on it, obtaining a perfect vision of the object on which we have focused. When this does not occur and the image converges at a point located outside the retina, we are faced with a refractive error, which can be any of the following:



An anomaly or defect of the eye that produces blurred or unclear vision of distant objects.



An anomaly or defect of the eye that produces blurred or unclear vision of nearby objects.



Anomaly or defect of the eye that consists of an irregular curvature of the cornea, which causes images to appear somewhat deformed and the outline of things to be unclear.


Myopia is a refractive error that occurs when light rays converge at a point in front of the retina, that is, the eye is longer than normal and the image is formed in front of the retina. It is therefore a defect that prevents us from correctly viewing things located at a certain distance.


Hyperopia is another refractive error. In this case, the opposite occurs as in myopia, so objects are focused behind the retina, since the light rays reach it without having converged because the eyeball is shorter than normal. Treatment can be with laser or intraocular lenses, depending on the refraction and the age of the patient.


In normal vision, the cornea has a similar curvature across its entire surface, that is, symmetrical. What differentiates it from other defects such as hyperopia is the alteration of the curvature and therefore, if it presents any alteration or inequality in its curvature, we are facing an astigmatic defect.